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Active Directory - a hierarchical database (directory service from Microsoft) that store objects such as username, emaill address, phone number, password, etc. It is use for authentication, Domain Policy creation and other. It handles large read/search operation.

Access - means you are able to read or write on a specific data located in particular secure area of your PC or network. Having access means you can achieve what you want.

Active Window - Running multiple application also creates multiple window, a window which is currently on the top of your display screen is called an Active Window. It is called active because it response from a user's input using mouse or keyboard.

Address book - list of person with essential details primarily email address and may also includes other information like phone number, address, company name etc.

Click - to press the left button of the mouse, usually would select/highlight an icon on the desktop.

Bit - Binary Digit - the smallest unit of information stored in a computer. Bit is express using 1 or 0 in binary level, true or false in Logical condition and ON or OFF in a circuit. There are 8 bits in 1 byte.

BIOS - Basic Input Output System - is a firmware of your mother board that initiate all hardware devices and make it available to the Operating System. BIOS is a small software that execute first during the start-up of you computer. It's stored on a ROM - read only memory so that it won't be overwritten.

CD ROM - Compact Disk Read-Only Memory - A kind of storage disk that holds roughly 640 MB of data. It uses laser optics to read information. Another type of drive is called CD-R Drive which can write data on the cd.

Command Prompt - is a command-line from Windows known as "cmd" that allows you to type a command in an old fashion way. You can perform many task without Graphical User Interface.

Defragmentation - a process to rewrite portion of files in HDD sector close to each other. Overtime files become fragmented in a sense that if there update on the file, computer writes some parts of the it into continuous available space of the hard disk thus reduce the performance of computer because computer will try to find it every time it's needed.

Diskette - also known as “floppy disk”, this is an obsolete device used to store data such as document, program codes, image or any files readable by computer. It has capacity of 1.44 MB and commonly very slow on read/write.

DOS - Disk Operating System – refer to a generic term for any operating system loaded from the disk. The famous example of this is MS-DOS which run and initiated from the diskette

DoS - Denial of Service Attack – a planned attack to disrupt web server. There are many kind of DoS i.e. sending a massive connection request that is not completed, another one is ping request with over sized packet results to to server becomes unresponsive or server crash.

Double-click - to press the left button of the mouse twice and usually an easy method to execute a program using the short-cut icon on your desktop such as Microsoft word, Google Chrome etc.

Download - process of transferring file (save a copy) from one computer to another via network i.e. downloading files from FTP server then save it into your local computer. We commonly download a lot of stuff in the internet such picture, mp3, video, application installer, windows update etc.

Firewall - A security appliance or a software with one main function, to secure the network from unauthorized access. Firewall protects organization from outside world (internet) and allows only permitted traffic in/out of the company.

Hexadecimal - A number system based on sixteen 0123456789ABCDEF using digits [0-9] and letters [A-F] since byte represent 8 binary bits, hexadecimal system is more convenient because 8 binary bits can be represented as 2 hexadecimal digits (more easy to read by humans).

HTML - HyperText Markup Language - refers to the standard markup language that describes how the web page will look like. HTML document are composed of html tags. (i.e ).

HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol - is a porotocal used on how messages are formatted and transmitted via web browser. HTTP is the foundation on how data and information is shared in the internet.

Hypertext or hyperlink - is a text or image usually located inside the document that when clicked it redirects you to other document or website.

Install - A process of setting-up a program/software into your system. Usually it includes software, drivers, or plugins. Installation of huge software oftenlly requires restart of you computer.

Kernel - is the central part of operating system where it handles things like memory management, process management, task management, disk management. It's important for kernel to be small as possible because it's the first part of OS that loads and remains in the main memory and still provide important other services required by the operating system. Application software uses kernel to access system hardware of your PC.

Laptop Computer - A portable computer designed for travel, it can run on battery or AC power. It has the essential component that a desktop PC have, like keyboard, cdrom, touch pad(serves as a mouse), speakers, web cam, and screen. The difference is that they are usually built-in and compact. Now it's commonly called a notebook, the companies started to produce notebook without, cdrom and smaller yet powerful batteries to make it ultra light.

Latency - the amount of time for a packet to travel on the network from one point to another. It can be measure using ping command. High latency results to slow data transfer.

Motherboard - The main physical circuit board of a computer, it contains major component such as processor, memory, bus controller, I/O ports, expansion slots for hardware like video card, sound card, modem.

Root Directory - because computer directory is a hierarchical based, the "root directory" means from the top it is the entry point that also leads you to other directory or sub directories. In command prompt each backlash \ corresponds to a directory. i.e c:\Windows\System32.

Driver - usually a small program that's installed on top of OS in order for an attached hardware device to function properly (i.e. printer, camera, video card, sound card).

DVD - Digital Versatile Disc - A high-capacity compact disc that can store 4.7 GB data, 8.5 GB for 2 layer disc and 17 GB for double sided.

E-Mail - Electronic Mail - is a message sent via the internet. it contains digital information such as text, images, attached files, links, etc.

Execute - to run application program or perform operation of a computer. Usually done using double of a mouse pointing to a particular shortcut icon or button of the application program.

File - is a durable collection of information example code, plain document etc. while its name is usually related to it's content. Computer programs are composed of different files such as .exe, .bat, .jar, .dll and many more.

Folder - is a directory that can store both files and folders.

GIF - Graphics Interchange Format - is a text, image or animated image that's widely used format in world wide web due to its support and compatibility.

GB - Gigabyte - equivalent to 1,048,576,000 bytes.

GUI - Graphical User Interface – created for our convenient use of computer instead of old fashion command line. Now, application program are more user friendly and easy to navigate. Using GUI can reduce human error and results to more productivity.

Hard Disk or HDD drive - is a computer hardware that holds various huge amount of data including operating system. HDD is a mechanical drive that spins and uses magnetic field to read/write data.

SSD - Solid State Disk - is a latest type of hard disk (non mechanical). It uses IC (memory) to store data persistently.

Icon - is a small image that represent a file, folder, application, device, etc.

Input - a data or commands entered into a computer.

Internet - is the world wide web of networks and computers. Internet has the biggest collection of data you can find in the entire planet.

ISP - Internet Service Provider - a company that provides Internet connection to the organization or private individual. It also provide other services such as web hosting, cloud services, etc. Commonly the charge rates are different depending on the bandwidth size you are subscribe in.

KB - Kilobyte - equivalent to 1,024 bytes

Maximize - To maximize the window so that it appears wide enough in front of your computer screen.

MB - Megabyte - equivalent 1,048,576 bytes.

Memory - type of electronic chip that serves as a temporary storage for CPU's fast processing of all data or instructions. Mostly it contains Operating System and active application program. Less Memory results to slow computer performance.

Minimize - to shrink the window and still able to access it anytime by clicking on the taskbar. Usually used when working on other application program at the same time.

Modem - Modulator-demodulator - A device that converts analog waves to digital and vice versa so that computer can send and receives transmitted data using telephone analog line.

Mouse - is a small device connected in the computer to navigate and point objects/icons on the computer screen. Usually you point a shortcut icon and double click (left click) to run that specific application program.

Multimedia - is a field where integration of text, image, video, audio etc. can be represented in various ways thru the use of advance technology, such as computer.

Multi-Tasking - running multiple application simultaneously. A typical computer can run many programs at the same time.

OS - Operating System - is the most crucial software of a computer that utilize computer's hardware/software resources (i.e. Windows 8, Linux, Macintosh, etc.). Application program usually runs on the top of Operating System.

Program - is a set of instruction (code) written to do a specific tasks. Instruction is mainly process by the CPU. (i.e. Microsoft Word, Antivirus, Winzip).

Reboot - is to restart a computer usually done to refresh the system. Restart can initiate automatically after finishing of new software installation.

Recycle Bin - a temporary storage where recently deleted files/folders are stored. Recycle bin has a limit depending on how big is the deleted files/folders.

Right-Click - right click displays more information like properties or action such as rename, delete, copy, cut, edit ect.

Search Engine - a web based program like Google designed to search information on the world wide web in response to a user's keyword input. The information generated is almost real time, results may be represented such as pages, images, videos, doc. and others.

Spam - is a junk email spread thru internet with many copies. A good example is unsolicited email where in you receives information from dubious products.

Start button - is usually located on the left most corner of the task bar. It displays my computer, control panel, all program installed in your computer for user's easy access.

Tape - is a device used for storage, it consist of loop of flexible celluloid-like material. It uses small amount of magnetic field to read/write data on the tape.

Task bar - is usually located at the bottom part of your desktop. The main purpose task bar is for easy switching of the current active window while still able to continue to work on other active application.

Task Manager - is a system monitoring tool that allows you to see the information of a current running application such as PID, memory usage, CPU usage and network performance. In case of application - not responding, you can use this tool to kill the process with extra caution.

Title Bar - is a horizontal bar on the top of the window that usually displays the name of application or the name of opened document. And usually has minimize, maximize, close button on the right side.

Time Zone - is an area on the globe where it follows uniform time for legal, commercial, and social reason. Time is measured relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). so as you travel from one country to other country you can adjust your watch base on the time zone where you in.

Uninstall - A process of removing program/software into your system. Usually it includes software, drivers, plugins or profile.

URL - Uniform Resource Locator - a type of Uniform Resource Identifier URI, used to locate an objects on the World Wide Web commonly known as "Web Address" (i.e. https://www.google.com).

Virus - is a malware program/code that usual found in USB, internet links, unsolicited emails etc. that when executed it replicates it self into your computer/mobile/network and make it stop working properly.

Cloud Computing - is a new era of Infra, Platform, Software "as a Service" where things are now accessible via the internet. Example: Companies can avail data storage via cloud so that it's less maintenance on their end.

PaaS - Platform as a Service

Saas - Software as a Service

IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service

Private Cloud - type of cloud computing platform where in the client has the full control of the environment. It is implemented within the corporate's firewall.

Public Cloud - is the common type of cloud computing platform which the service provider provides the resources and make it available to the general public whether free or pay-per-usage model.

Hybird Cloud - basically it's a combination of Private Cloud and Public Cloud. It can perform distinct function on one organization.

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